Species References: Atlantic Surfclam

Belding, D.L. 1910. The growth and habits of the sea clam (Mactra solidissima). Rep. Comm. Fish. Game Mass 1909 Publ. Doc. 25:26-41.

Caddy, J.F., and A.R. Billard. 1976. A first estimate of production from an unexploited population of the bar clam, Spisula solidissima. Can. Fish. Mar. Serv. Tech. Rep. 648, 14 p.

Feder, H.M., A.J. Paul, and J. Paul. 1976. Growth and size-weight relationships of the pinkneck clam, Spisula polynyma, in Hartney Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska. Proc. Natl. Shellfish. Assoc. 66:21-25.

Jones, D.S., I. Thompson, and W. Ambrose. 1978. Age and growth rate determinations for the Atlantic surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Bivalvia:Mactracea), based on internal growth lines on shell cross-sections. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 47:63-70.

Jones, D.S. 1980. Annual cycle of growth increment formation in two continental shell bivalves and its paleoecologic significance. Paleobiology 6:331-340.

Jones, D.S. 1981a. Repeating layers in the molluscan shell are not always periodic. J. Paleontology. 55:1076-1082.

Jones, D.S. 1981b. Reproductive cycles of the Atlantic surf clam, Spisula solidissima, and the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, off New Jersey. J. Shellfish Res. 1:23-32.

Kerswill, C.J. 1944. The growth rate of bar clam. Fish. Res. Board Can., Prog. Rep. Atl. Coast Stn. 35:18-20.

Loesch, J.G., and J.W. Ropes. 1977. Assessment of surf clam stocks in nearshore waters along the Delmarva Peninsula and in the fishery south of Cape Henry. Proc. Natl. Shellfish. Assoc. 67:29-34.

Lutz, R.A., and D.C. Rhoads. 1980. Growth patterns within the molluscan shell: an overview. In: Rhoads, D.C., and R.A. Lutz (eds.), Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms, p. 203-254. Plenum Press, NY.

Rhoads, D.C., and R.A. Lutz. 1980. Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms: Biological records of environmental changes. Plenum Press, NY, 750 p.

Ropes, J.W. 1968. Reproductive cycle of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima, in offshore New Jersey. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) 135:349-365.

Ropes, J.W. 1978. Shell length at sexual maturity of surf clams, Spisula solidissima, from an inshore habitat. Proc. Natl. Shellfish. Assoc. 69:85-91.

Ropes, J.W. 1980. Biological and fisheries data on the Atlantic surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn). Tech. Serv. Rep. 24, Woods Hole Lab., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Woods Hole, MA 02543, 88 p.

Ropes, J.W. 1982. Hermaphroditism, sexuality and sex ratio in the surf clam, Spisula solidissima, and the softshell clam, Mya arenaria. Nautilus 96:141-146.

Ropes, J.W., and A.S. Merrill. 1970. Marking surf clams. Proc. Natl. Shellfish. Assoc. 60:99-106.

Ropes, J.W., and A.S. Merrill.1976. Historical and cruise data on surf clams and ocean quahogs. Data Rep. ERL-MESA-17, Sandy Hook Lab., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Highlands, NJ 07732, 108 p.

Ropes, J.W., and L. O'Brien. 1978. A unique method of ageing surf clams. Bull. Am. Malacol. Union, Inc., p. 58-61.

Ropes, J.W., and A. Jearld, Jr. 1987. Age determination of ocean bivalves. In: Summerfelt, R.C., and G.E. Hall (eds.), Age and growth of fish, p. 517-526. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA.

Westman, J.R., and M.H. Bidwell. 1946. The surf clam. Economics and biology of New York marine resources. Unpubl., Oxford Lab., Northeast Fish. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Oxford. MD 21654.

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(File Modified Feb. 23 2011)