Species References: Butterfish Bigelow, H.B., and W.C. Schroeder. 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 53(74), 577 p.

Caldwell, D.K. 1961. Populations of the mackerel, squid, and/or butterfish, Poronotus triacanthus (Peck), with systematic comments. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 60(1): 19-31.

Colton, J.B., W.G. Smith, A.W. Kendall, Jr., P.L. Berrien, and M.P. Fahay. 1979. Principal spawning areas and times of marine fishes, Cape Sable to Cape Hatteras. Fish. Bull., U.S. 76:911-915.

DuPaul, W.D., and J.D. McEachran. 1973. Age and growth of the butterfish, Peprilus triacanthus in the lower York River, Chesapeake Sci. 14:205-207.

Horn, M.H. 1970. Systematics and biology of the stromateoid fishes of the genus Peprilus. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 140(5):165-261

Kawahara. S. 1978. Age and growth of butterfish, Peprilus triacanthus (Peck), in ICNAF Subarea 5 and Statistical Area 6. ICNAF Sel. Pap. 3, Int. Comm. Northw. Atl. Fish., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada B2Y 3Y9, p. 73-78.

Nichols, J.T., and C.M. Breder. 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica 9(1), 192 p.

Pannella, C. 1974. Otolith growth patterns: an aid in age determination in temperate and tropical fishes. In: Bagenal, T.B. (ed.), Ageing of fish, p. 28-39. Gresham Press, Old Woking, England.

Pannella, C. 1980. Growth patterns in fish sagittae. In: Rhoads, D.C., and R.A. Lutz (eds.), Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms--Biological records, and environmental change, p. 519-557. Plenum Press, NY.

Waring, G.T. 1975. A preliminary analysis of the status of butterfish in ICNAF Subarea 5 and Statistical Area 6. ICNAF Res. Doc. 75/74, Int. Comm. Northw. Atl. Fish., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada B2Y 3Y9, 32 p.

Waring, G.T. 1986. An analysis of spatial differences in size composition and abundance of butterfish, Peprilus triacanthus off the Northeast United States. Ref. Doc. 86-04, NOAA, NMFS, Woods Hole Lab., Woods Hole, MA 02543, 23 p.

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