Environmental Monitors on Lobster Traps Phase IV: Drifters
James P. Manning
Northeast Fisheries Science Center
Atlantic Offshore Lobstermen's Association
Gulf of Maine Lobster Foundation and
Maine Lobstermen's Association
Charles J. Gregory
Southern Maine Community College
Chair, Department of Science
Downeast Lobstermen's Association
Massachusetts Lobstermen's Association
What are the physical processes governing the transport/fate of lobster larvae and other planktonic particles along the coast of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts? Can we accurately simulate these processes with state-of-the-art numerical circulation models? We propose to address these questions with a truly collaborative effort that could potentially involve hundreds of fishermen along the entire western edge of the Gulf of Maine. By seeding the Maine Coastal Current with a few dozen low cost drifters at selected transects on a monthly basis during the summer of 2004 with the help of lobstermen to deploy and report these units, we propose to provide the first summer-long, coast-wide, description of the synoptic flow fields. These surface current velocity observations will be used to validate a set of numerical simulations conducted by a suite of local circulation models currently under development at various state, federal, and academic labs.
In order to understand the
inter-annual variability of
stock recruitment processes,
it is necessary to both monitor
and model the underlying
physical environment. Are
there large changes in the
conditions and pathways of
drift during critical stages of
larval development? The
variables in describing the
physical oceanography of the
Gulf of Maine are
temperature, salinity, and
current velocity. Having
setup an infrastructure for
management of the first two
data streams (temperature and
salinity) in earlier phases of
eMOLT, plans are now
underway to obtain
observations of the third
(current velocity). While
each of these variables are
dependent on the other, all
three are required in a complete description of the physical system. As in the case of atmospheric
weather models, in order to generate realistic output for the entire three-dimensional field, it is
necessary to repeatedly assimilate data at key locations throughout the geographic domain.
Lobster catch off the coast of northern New England has reached historically high levels in recent years. If and when it begins to fall in the near future questions will undoubtedly arise on the role of the environment and long term climatic changes. The discussion is already underway, in fact, along the Southern New England coast. The absolute causes of lobsters demise in that area is still under debate (Allen, 2003). Of particular concern is the potential effect of long-term climatic change (Cuomo and Wilson, 2003; Wilson, et al., 2001). How will the lobster population respond to an apparent warming of the environment over a long time scale? Given a confounding influx of cold ice melt from the north, it is possible that this large scale weather pattern is affecting the northern New England region less so than the southern. If so, what are the transport mechanisms providing this Canadian source water to the Gulf of Maine and how quickly do particles move along the coast? The North Atlantic Oscillation complicates this long term trend as it occasionally provides relatively warmer water masses to the Gulf of Maine and can thereby alter not only the temperature and salinity throughout the region (at depth in particular) but the circulation pattern as well. These large scale, long-term questions can only be answered by Gulf-wide, multi-year, low-cost, collaborative studies with the help of fishermen. Gary Ostrom, vice-president of the Massachusetts Lobstermen's Association, was quoted in a Boston Globe article (Healy, 2002), "Water Temperature runs everything for us".
Obviously, a study as we are proposing is not limited to answering questions concerning the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Since this proposal focuses on surface transport, it applies to all planktonic material in the upper layer. This includes all forms of fish eggs and larvae as well as various forms of algae such as the ever increasing cyst of Alexandrium fundyense. Blooms of this toxic organism have been under investigation for several years off the coast of Maine with projects such as the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (EOCOHAB) followed up by the Marine Ecosystem Response of Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB). The hypothesis that cysts are released from the bottom in the deeper upstream/offshore waters and are subsequently carried by surface currents inshore is in many ways similar to that of the lobster larvae cycle. The mechanism and variability of this process is still under investigation (Wolff and Incze, 2003; Incze et al, 2000a; Incze 2001; McGillicuddy et al., 2003).
The practical benefits and applications (aside from pure research) of coastal circulation studies with this space and time scale is growing. In addition to the fish and algae transport (ie natural particles), our study will also provide background information on the potential pathways of the human-induced pollution. This topic is becoming increasingly important as municipalities, state, and federal governments struggle with the placements of Marine Protected Areas, sanctuaries, and aquaculture. The need to assess transport of effluent along the coast and the exchange mechanism between estuaries is obviously on the rise. The recent oil spill off the southern New England coast has spawned an increase in awareness and need for preparedness.
A second non-scientific application of our study is providing assistance, for example, to the US Coast Guard in search and rescue (SAR) operations. Discussions are already underway, in fact, to collaborate with local stations on both the observational and model efforts. Beginning this summer (2003), the USCG Research and Development lab in Groton, CT is participating in a nationwide pilot program to air-deploy a set of "Self-Locating Datum Marker Buoys" on a case-by-case basis. A total of 200 satellite-tracked drifters were delivered last month to various air stations including some around New England and will be released during SAR missions in the coming years. Preliminary arrangements have been made to coordinate our efforts in terms of both observations (drifter deployments) and model (simulations). With our circulation model routines in place, we have requested the USCG to send "last known positions" and drifter drop locations as well as the time series of drifter fixes so that we may at least test our simulations and validate our particle tracking abilities. While it is unlikely that our efforts will actually contribute to the real-life SAR operations, we will foster 3-way collaboration between USCG, New England lobstermen, and science. The USCG is already cooperating with earlier phases of eMOLT having deployed temperature sensors on some of their fixed buoy locations in Cape Cod Bay in locations where lobstermen do not generally occupy. The USCG has the largest "fixed" and now "drifting" buoy operation in New England. In summary, we see the USCG as a logical partner in the longterm objectives of our nation's Ocean Observing System.
What is the long-term future of our coastal waterways? Since there will undoubtedly be more calls for offshore industrial structures such as wind towers and underwater tidal current generators, we need to assess the environmental impacts and feasibility of each proposal in specific areas of the coastal zone. Do we have enough understanding of the residual currents in each location and the degree of variability expected in those locations? Studies of this type need years of data to develop a statistical understanding of various dynamics. A long term (multi-year) monitoring strategy as we are testing with this experiment may provide a low-cost solution.
As noted at the end of the "project plan" section below, the Atlantic Offshore Lobstermen's Association, while not involved with the drifter study, has proposed to expand their eMOLT Phase I activity for two reasons. 1) With the first few years of temperature data along the shelf edge, we have documented a very dynamic environment highly influenced by Gulf Stream ring and tidal variations. A few temperature probes allotted to individual lobstermen are not sufficient to resolve the spatial scales of variability that affect the area. 2) Given their location at the outer boundary of our model grid (shelfedge), if at least some of these individuals are outfitted with pressure sensors on their temperature probes, they may be able to provide time series of sea level variations. Elevation along the oceanic boundary is probably the most-uncertain input variable of any coastal circulation model in existence today. For these reasons, we are proposing to expand the level of probe deployments especially along the shelf edge and provide the necessary support to do so.
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORK
The study proposed here is tied to many previous and existing projects. The ECOHAB investigation, for example, examined the mechanisms involved with transport of toxic phytoplankton along the coast of Maine (McGillicuddy et al., 2003). As one of the major goals of this program was to identify "bloom-favorable" conditions, the study required a great deal of both observational and modeling effort. The primary cost of this program was directed towards ship time on federal research vessels for the few cruises per year. The primary conclusions highlighted the need for a gulf-wide approach necessary to capture the entire process. It also demonstrated the need for nearly continuous sampling to monitor a great deal of temporal variability due to different wind conditions and water mass processes. In recent years the MERHAB project extended these objectives especially in term of modeling circulation fields. Our proposed initiative intends to follow up on the ECOHAB/MERHAB work with close ties to the latter. Our pilot study for eMOLT drifters, in fact, was conducted on board a MERHAB cruise in June 2003 where a dozen eMOLT drifters were tested along with a eight traditional satellite track drifters (see Figure 1 above) .
Several studies have addressed similar questions of transport variability. Lobster larvae advection (Incze et al. 2000a, Incze and Naimie, 2000b) may be governed by the same principles where a planktonic particle is released from the sea bed, rises to near-surface waters, and then is carried by a combination of density and wind-driven currents towards and along the coast (Pettigrew, et. al, 1998; Lynch et. al, 1997; Brooks, 2003) . The time & space variability of this process (and therefore the irregularity in the distribution of settled late-stage larvae) is evidently linked to the oceanographic dynamics. The primary question being addressed is the exchange between the coastal current and the very near-shore estuary environments (Bilgili, et al, 2003). These processes occur in <50m water depth, an area that is heavily fished by the lobster industry, thereby making traditional sampling protocol nearly impossible. The initial idea for the eMOLT drifter program was hatched, in fact, on board a SeaGrant-funded cruise led by Lew Incze (July 2002) at the mouth of Penobscot Bay where our net hauls (MOCNESS: Multiple Opening and Closing Nets Environmental Sensor Systems) and recovery of satellite-tracked drifters were limited to the only area free of gear, a very narrow ship channel. Clearly, an alternative strategy was needed to study the advective processes.
We propose to coordinate our eMOLT drifter deployments with those proposed by Incze et al during the summer of 2004. As noted in the figure below, one of our transects is just upstream of the Penobscot branch location under investigation by Incze. Our monthly deployments throughout the summer will supplement their near-weekly deployments at this transect. Where our deployments are designed to capture the broad-scale monthly to seasonal variations, their's will address the smaller scale processes associated with weekly variations, individual weather systems, fortnightly tidal variation, and instabilities along the coastal current. Much of their work will be governed by the realtime satellite imagery available at the time of deployment working closely with the UMaine remote sensing lab.
Another closely related project is the Gulf of Maine Oceanographic Observing System (GoMOOS). This consortium of state and local agencies from both industry and academics has done an excellent job in data collection and especially in dissemination of data to the public. By serving data via the web in a distributed way (via Open Data Access Protocol, formerly referred to as the Distributed Oceanographic Data System), GoMOOS provides easy access to a large collection of datasets. They have, in fact, developed software routines to portray and serve eMOLT data in order to supplement the existing the GoMOOS buoy data. As we have far less resources and expertise in web-based display, they have generously offered to provide a portal to user-friendly views of our temperature and salinity time series. This type of operational system demonstrated by GoMOOS will play a large part in NOAA's oceanographic programs in the years to come and will continue to include both observational and model products. GoMOOS programmers are actively incorporating data collected by various agencies such as Maine's Department of Marine Resources and NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Science Center. Communication between eMOLT and other environmental studies groups such as the Island Institute and the Lobster Institute is essential. The Island Institute, in particular, has been instrumental in development of the gulf wide geographic information system and has shown interest in adding eMOLT data layers.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS
Since its inception, the eMOLT objective has been the same: to monitor the physical characteristics of New England's coastal waters over multiple years. Phase IV adds what may be the most important of data streams, current velocity. Many biologist would agree that the physical transport of early stage larvae is what governs a large portion of the recruitment variability and ultimate fate of the population. It is also true, of course, that temperature and salinity play an important role in the growth, survival, and activity during all stages of the marine animal's life. However, currents that disperse the planktonic larvae and regulate the settling locations may be the dominant environmental condition that precipitates the adult populations. Since one variable affects the other, one needs to assess the influence of large inter-annual variations of temperature and salinity on currents. It is therefore necessary to measure all three variables. Three years of temperature data from eMOLT phase I have now documented year-to-year variations in gulf-wide bottom temperature that can be as large as several degrees. The spring 2002 bottom temperatures were, in general, a few degrees warmer than climatological means (after the warmest winter air temperatures on record for New England) while spring 2003 temperatures now look to be a few degrees colder than the climatological means. Does this significantly alter the coastal flow field?
In addition to the large inter-annual signal, the continuous monitoring provided by eMOLT data provides statistical information on the effects of shorter time scale processes such as wind and runoff events. The key words here are "continuous" and "statistical". Much of physical oceanographic research has traditionally been conducted on large federally-funded vessels where investigators are given a limited period of one to two weeks per year for investigating specific processes that are very dynamic and often confounded by other time and space scales. However, we have found that to monitor the complete ecosystem it is necessary to incorporate multiple scales of variability. This can only be done with a well-designed, cost-effective, monitoring program. We propose phase IV as a piolot study to provide a cost-effective observations of current. In order to collect empirical evidence of, for example, the effects of enhanced river plumes from large runoff events and the flow fields response to storm induced up-welling and down-welling events, it is necessary to have instrumentation in the water at the right time and the right place.
To develop an infrastructure in place that will allow opportunistic sampling provides investigators a chance to react quickly to a particular environmental signal. In addition to routine drifter deployments at preselected time and places therefore, the low-cost option also allows for emergency-like response protocol. If investigators find, for example, satellite seasurface temperature imagery indicating a larger than normal volume of Eastern Maine's Coastal Current approaching the mid-coast region, it will be possible to redirect a few units in the core of this current. If DMR lobster biologist, for example, document a larger than normal population of early-stage larvae along the Downeast region, it will be possible to seed these higher density patches with drifters to monitor the subsequent pathways.
Finally and most-importantly, the primary objective of this particular phase of eMOLT is to test and evaluate the state-of-the-art coastal circulation models currently underdevelopment around New England. [At a recent Gordon Research Conference in New Hampshire, an informal consortium of New England coastal ocean circulation modelers was formed in order to collaborate in the very difficult task of simulating our local current fields (see circ/nenocm.html).] Do these various models accurately reproduce the subtidal flow field? Given the complex topography of our coast, the Maine coast in particular, there is a great deal of spatial variability that can not be documented with just a few moored or drifting platforms. This requires a systematic deployment of a large quantity of drifters upstream of the various bifurcation sites. There are a set of hypothesized bifurcation sites where the coastal currents split but the relative volume of water is diverted in either direction and the mechanisms that regulate these proportions are unknown. Sensitivity studies with models can be setup to hindcast and even predict the primary routes based on varying forces (wind, tide, heat flux, and offshore influences).
Most of the selected transects of proposed drifter deployments (Figure 3 below) are designed to test the various scenarios at the critical bifurcation sites. The multiple deployments off Stonington, for example, will monitor the percentage of time the water parcels from the Eastern Maine Coastal Current are directed offshore relative to that directed along the coast towards southern Maine. The multiple deployments off Glouchester, Mass., for example, will monitor the percentage of time the water parcels are directed towards Stellwagon Bank as opposed to the time they enter Mass Bay and eventually Cape Cod Bay. In what month/season and under what conditions is there a preferred pathway one way or the other? Can we tune the model to determine the mechanisms that turn gateways on or off? In collaboration with Mass Bay outfall monitoring programs (Mass Water Resource Authority and the Center for Coastal Studies), it may be possible to deploy sets of drifters at the outfall pipe on a monthly basis in order to supplement the existing drifter dataset from previous years.
The project plan is simple. There are two methods: one involving a novel experimental use of inexpensive (electronic-less) "eMOLT drifters" and one more traditional approach (for comparison purposes) using ARGOS satellite tracked drifters. In the first case, a set of one hundred "eMOLT drifters" will be constructed by several marine science students at the Southern Maine Community College over the winter 2003-2004 under the direction of the lab manager Tom Long and department chair Charles Gregory. Most of these students have already participated in a 2-day drifter construction session on 20-21 May 2003 when the first 12 prototypes were produced (see Appendix III). The 100 units, which each cost approximately $60 in material and $60 in labor, will be distributed to a set of selected lobstermen (1-2 from each of the inshore lobster associations) at the Massachusettes Lobstermen Weekend in February and/or Maine Fish Forum in March 2004. These lobstermen, similar to the salinity probe participants in phase II, will be funded for their effort. They will be trained at a special 1/2-day-long workshop to assemble the drifters and log deployments. If they wish to defer the work of assembly and deployment to one of the students, they are given the option to be assigned a student trained in construction, assembly, and deployment.
These drifters are constructed with a 5' vertical length of 2" diameter schedule-40 PVC with 2 orthogonal pairs of horizontal fiberglass rods supporting a set of cloth sails. A set of 4 - 6" diameter styrofoam spheres are attached to the horizontal rods for floatation (see figure). The complete description of these units and step-by-step instructions on construction, assembly, and deployments are posted on the eMOLT web page under "Getting Started Manuals for Participants". All components are designed to be below the waterline except for the top 2' of the PVC and the top half of the spherical floatation. Except for the lack of electronics, this is the traditional design of a "Davis drifter" widely used in oceanography to provide sufficient drag below the water line and to minimize the wind resistance. The unit ID number and phone number are displayed on the PVC to be readable when a boater pulls along side the unit. Floats are labeled with ID# as well. All components are made to withstand several months at sea including durable materials and stainless hardware. Detailed instructions on protocol are stenciled on the sails reading "If found adrift, please return to water, If found aground, please take home. Either way, please call 1-800-XXX-XXXX. ".
Repeated deployments will be conducted on a monthly (late June, July, August, & Sept) basis during
the summer of 2004 with 4-5 drifters per month per participant. The 4-5 drifters will be deployed on
a standard transect perpendicular to the shore out to the 50m contour. The exact location and number
of deployments will depend on the topography of the region, local current regime, and, in some cases,
the available satellite imagery supplied by UMaine's remote sensing lab (personnel communication
with Andy Thomas). In regions of strong tidal flows, the timing of the tides will be consistent from
one month's deployment to the next.
How will we get fixes on these drifters without electronics? Lobstermen all along the New England coast will be informed about the project through an extensive outreach effort lead by the respective lobster associations. The lobstermen will be instructed on the protocol to follow upon sighting a unit. In addition to special mailings to the existing eMOLT participants, notices will appear in association newsletters, Commercial Fisheries News, Working Waterfront, and other commonly read publications. Information will be broadcast on standard "Notice to Mariners" via standard USCG protocol and the Maine Marine Patrol radio. Several PowerPoint presentations on the project will be conducted at association, zone council, and lobster advisory council meetings, as well as the Maine Fish Forum and MaLA Weekend.
Upon sighting a drifting unit, lobstermen will simply be asked to provide:
Four options to report a sighting include:
Secondly, satellite drifters are included in this proposal to measure the relative benefits of the "eMOLT drifters". Is the cost of traditional drifters (~$1.5K each) worth the expenditure? Will it be necessary in future years to spend money on satellite drifters when we may get the same information on units for 5-10% of the cost? If the inexpensive experimental method fails for a particular transect, the addition of satellite units with a batch of "eMOLT drifters" will discern the general vicinity of the group in order to alert mariners accordingly and explain the potential disappearance of the lot. Occasionally deploying a satellite drifter in the center of the transect will provide an estimate of the coastal current flow while minimizing the risk of loss due to either washing ashore or being driven out to sea. The eMOLT drifters will be deployed in higher-risk water on both the shallow and deep ends of the transects.
Given the network of lobstermen and tuna fishermen on the backside of Cape Cod, a recovery plan
will be implemented such that the satellite drifters may be found and reused for repeated
deployments. In a truly collaborative manner, the satellite drifters deployed by the Maine lobstermen
will be recovered and returned by the New Hampshire and Massachusetts fishermen downstream.
Close contact with mariners working on the east side of Stellwagon Bank and Cape Cod such as
those from the Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies, the Dolphin Whale Watch Fleet, the tuna
fishermen, and the USCG will also be made to maximize the likelihood of retrieving drifters before
they exit the study area. This strategy was successfully employed on the July 2nd, 2003, in fact, when
a lobstermen called to report a satellite drifter sighting off Race Point and subsequently recovered
it so we may use it again next year. On the following day, July 3, 2003, another satellite drifter was
recovered by a lobstermen reporting it up inside Muscungus Bay. In five out of six deployments off
Penobscot Bay in the summer of 2002, the units were eventually recovered by lobstermen (or the
lobster community) so that we could reuse the instrumentation. In all of these recovery cases, the
individuals involved were extremely cooperative and interested in the study. We have discovered
just recently, in fact, that the tuna fishermen are very interested in the fact that we can provide them
with surface temperatures at the location of the moving drifters and, in the next year's website,
present these values on a daily basis. We have begun negotiations with the tuna-fishing- spotter-plane-pilots, a potential source of drifter reporters in 2004. In summary, devoted ship time to drifter
recovery operations such as those conducted on Georges Bank (Manning and Churchill, in prep) is
often not cost effective but intensive outreach can provide a mechanism to alert those parties already
underway in the area to look out for and recover the relatively expensive satellite tracked units.
Association eMOLT representatives will be tasked with outreach efforts. Lobstermen will be strongly encouraged and trained in using option #1 in reporting eMOLT drifters where they are asked to punch in the units ID and loran bearings to be automatically entered in the database. We have made arrangements to piggyback on an existing Interactive Voice Response system that is currently maintained by the National Marine Fisheries Service Glouchester Lab. If the individuals supply their contact information, mailings will be sent out including a complete history of the unit sighted as well as the project results in general.
The drifter ID# is coded to supply boaters with information regarding its history. The five digit code includes:
Drifter #46382, for example, would be the 2nd drifter in the transect deployed in June 2004 at approximately 43N, 68W. In this way an interested lobstermen or curious mariner in general, can pull along side the unit to determine its history. All floatation will be color coded according to where it was deployed. Distinct combinations of colored floatation will enabled spotter planes to identify a drifter without needing to read the ID#.
All drifter tracks will be maintained on both the eMOLT web site (as well as the GoMOOS web site)
along with circulation model projections and hindcast. While the core model for the eMOLT project
will likely be the Dartmouth College QUODDY code (Lynch et al, 1996), other modelers will be
encouraged to test their simulations. The Web browsers should be able to view tracks and
animations for selected years, months, regions, or ID code.
The Atlantic Offshore Lobstermen's Association (AOLA) will not directly participate in the drifter study but will be provided funding to expand their Phase I temperature probe project. A few of their new probes will include a pressure sensor for purposes of detecting sea level variations. While the current distribution of temperature probes in the inshore region is sufficient to capture a very coherent fluctuation within the Gulf of Maine, the processes and scale of temperature variability on the shelf edge are very different. Multiple probe deployments require additional focused effort on the part of the participant in maintaining proper mooring logs and support for that work is proposed accordingly. The inshore associations will however continue to maintain their existing temperature series. They will be funded to continue their current level of effort on the temperature probe project but that will be at a reduced level compared to the AOLA.
Ever since the first year temperature probes were deployed (Phase I, 2000), there have been nearly 100 participants involved with eMOLT (see Appendix I) . Since only a few individuals have dropped from the program, over 95% have remained interested and understand our longterm objective of continued montitoring. We have adopted a protocol to contact each participant at least every six months to keep them up-to-date on the data they are collecting and the project results in general. Since a large majority of the participants are active in their respective association, attend meetings, and read newsletters, it has been relatively easy to make personal contact with each individual.
At the time of this writing, there is, in addition, a set of "drifter reporters" that have joined the eMOLT effort (see Appendix II). These are individuals who have called in with reports of drifter sightings during the 2003 pilot study and left their contact information. Most have expressed both a curiosity and serious interest in the project. We have received, on average, more than one sighting report per drifter and expect to get at least that many more before they exit the Gulf of Maine region. Given our limited experience with drifters off the mouth of Penobscot Bay during July and August of 2002, we were expecting many more reports but, since we deployed the drifters relatively early this year (late May-early June 2003) and conducted very little outreach ( a single article in the MeLA newsletter and a few phone calls), we hope to do better next summer.
As a government agency, the Northeast Fisheries Science Center is mandated to collect, process, and serve information associated with local fisheries. As a physical oceanographer employed by that agency for the past 16 years, Jim Manning, while primarily occupied for the last decade with the Georges Bank GLOBEC project, is now responsible for managing NEFSC datasets associated with the physical water mass conditions. He is now tasked with developing and coordinating with the various integrated operational oceanographic systems. With help from others at the Woods Hole Lab, the physical oceanographic sampling on research cruises by NOAA vessels (including observations with Conductivity, Temperature and Depth recorders and various other shipboard sensors) are processed, analyzed, and web-served. These on-going data collections together with historical archives are now loaded along with the eMOLT records into the same ORACLE database. The computing power and support is provided by the NEFSC Data Management Systems. While maintaining both hardware and software for the entire center, DMS continually integrates the newest technological advances. The latest developments include an upgrade to ORACLE 9. Geographic Information System protocol is now being implemented as a means of web display. In collaboration with GoMOOS programmers, Manning has incorporated the openSource "MapServer" utility for purposes of interactive layers of information on a web served map and will be developing this strategy in the next few years. One of the new objectives is to collect and serve not only the eMOLT-collected drifter data but the entire collection of historical drifter tracks from the Gulf of Maine area.
Patrice Farrey has very close contact with the lobster industry. Her primary task now is to maintain
communications between the various lobstermen associations and ensure that projects like eMOLT
are merged with related efforts around the entire Gulf of Maine Region. As both executive director
of the Gulf of Maine Lobster Foundation and the Maine Lobstermen's Association, she has
extensive knowledge of the industry and has near-weekly contact with many of the eMOLT
participants throughout the state of Maine. Many of the eMOLT participants are also involved with
issues addressed regularly by MeLA. Recent hires like Carla Morin and summer interns like SMCC
student Heather Tetreault have provided much needed support for Patrice in the many projects
underway. Both Carla and Heather are now trained in many aspects of the eMOLT project and
qualified to present eMOLT results at various meetings/presentations.
Bonnie Spinazzola, the executive director of the Atlantic Offshore Lobstermen's Association, has
been involved with all aspects of local and offshore fisheries in the last few decades. Well aware
of the needs and concerns of the lobster industry, she maintains contact with a majority of the
offshore lobster fleet. She is involved with research efforts other than eMOLT and is committed to
integrating projects in order to maximize the benefit for her constituents. She is currently a
co-principal investigator along with Manning and Gawarkiewicz (Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution) on a separate proposal to the US Navy to extend the eMOLT protocol all along the
Southern New England shelf edge. As in the case of MeLA office, the AOLA operation and duties
have exploded in the last few years so that Bonnie needs to expand her space and support to
continue. It is hoped that the eMOLT support will provide the assistance she needs in the form of
staff. The eMOLT paperwork and record keeping is not insignificant.
Further down the coast in Cutler, Maine, Jeremy and Charlene Cates both have the computer skills and local contacts to represent the Downeast region. Jeremy is a well-known lobstermen in that area and has been active in all aspects of the industry. His wife Charlene, being head of admissions at a private high school, has the communication skills, interest, and capabilities for the record keeping tasks of eMOLT. They also have the support of the Downeast Association's executive director, Clare Grindal, and the rest of the association.
Dave Casoni, a lobstermen and retired school teacher, has near-weekly contact with many of the eMOLT participants in Massachusetts. As secretary, treasurer, and active member of the MaLA for several years, Dave is quite capable of continuing eMOLT responsibilities at the association level.
Charles Gregory has taught several college science classes ranging from Oceanography to Human Anatomy & Physiology. Prior to teaching full-time at Southern Maine Community College (SMCC), Charles has taught at Colby College, the University of Southern Maine, the University of Maine's Orono campus, and the University of New England. In addition, he has taught at both the middle and high school levels. Chuck's doctoral research was on the taxonomy and ecology of Gulf of Maine plankton; an effort that landed him aboard several oceanographic cruises. With nearly 20 new marine science students moving through the SMCC system each year, he and his lab manager, Tom Long , have influenced many students, many moving on to the university system. Involvement with the eMOLT project is one example of the type of hands-on, practical, applied approach they have developed at SMCC. As determined during the prototype building seesion this past May, their facilities include a sail loft with adequate space, lighting, and industrial sewing equipment for mass production of "eMOLT drifters".
DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS, IMPACTS, AND DELIVERABLES
The primary vehicle for dissemination of eMOLT data and results is the web. The primary site is still at www.emolt.org but in very recent months much of this activity has been taken up by the professional services of the Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS). A web browser can now log on to "http://www.gomoos.org/emolt/" and select various "lobster zones" and "depth zones" to be able to extract & view eMOLT time series of temperature. One can zoom in on the map as well as the time series to view the details of the data without revealing the actual location of the trap within the zone. This utility was developed over the last several months with suggestions and feedback provided by the eMOLT representatives.
Drifter trajectories such as those denoted in Figure 1 above will be served via the web in a similar manner. Together with the GoMOOS programmers we have developed the means of generating GIS shape files from the line objects associated with lat/lon series so that users may be able to interactively overlay tracks and zoom in for details. As noted above, the actual drifter tracks will be stored in an Oracle database at the NEFSC and served to the oceanographic community via the Open Data Access Protocol distributed data system following the new protocols for Ocean.US.
However, since many of the participating fishermen are not active web browsers, it is important that we include alternative means of disseminating data to them directly. As in the temperature and salinity case, we will maintain the practice of mailing results directly to the individuals who collect it in the form of plots and tables of information. Thank you letters will go out to all those reporting drifters and leaving their contact information. Packets of information will include the details of the particular drifter sighted along with the complete story of multiple drifters. In addition to these mailings, we will conduct frequent presentations at meetings. The LCD projectors (which represent nearly 25% of the equipment budget) are proposed for this purpose. Seasonally-updated PowerPoint presentations will be generated at NEFSC and emailed to the four associations to be modified and added to as needed. More on the outreach activity & dissemination of results is provided in the budget justification section below.
Allen, R.B., 2003, "Understanding the area 2 lobster fishery collapse and doing something about it", R.B. Allen Associates, Wakefield, RI.
Bilgili, A., J. Proehl, D.R. Lynch, K. Smith, and M.R. Swift, 2003, Experiments in Lagrangian Modeling of Transport and Exchange in a Gulf of Maine Estuary, Poster presented at the June 2003 Gordon Research Conference, Colby-Sawyer College, New London, NH.
Brooks, D.A. 2003. Transport pathways for lobster larvae and infectious salmon anemia in the eastern Gulf of Maine. American Geophysical Union Meeting, Nice, France. March 2003.
Cuomo, C. and R. Wilson, 2003, "Bottom water conditions can create problems for lobsters in Long Island Sound", Lobster Health News, Vol. 1, No. 1, Connecticut Sea Grant.
Healy, P. 2002. "Warming waters", Boston Globe, August 30, 2002, page B1.
Incze, L., 2001, "Post-Larval Lobster (Homarus americanus) distributions in Penobscot Bay in relation to hydrography, circulation and remote sensing information", Annual Report for 2000, NOAA/NESDIS Grant. Year 4.
Incze, L.S., P. Aas, T. Ainaire, and M. Bowen, 2000a. Neustonic postlarval American lobsters, Homarus americanus, in the western Gulf of Maine: spatial and interannual variations, Can. J. Fish. Aqua. Sci., 57:755-765.
Incze, L.S. and C.E.Naimie, 2000b. Modelling the transport of lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae and postlarvae in the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Oceanog. 9:99-113.
Incze, L.S., R.A. Wahle, and A. T. Palma, 2000c, Advection and settlement rates in a benthic invertebrate: recruitment to first benthic stage in Homarus americanus., ICES J. of Mar. Sci., 57:430-437.
Lim, M.E., 2003, Submarine groundwater discharge beneath eastern Casco Bay, Mid-coast Maine, An Honors Paper for the Dept. Of Geology, Bowdoin College, New Brunswick, Maine.
Lynch,D.R., M.J. Holboke, C. E. Naimie. The Maine Coastal Current Spring Climatological Circulations, 1997, Cont.Shelf Res., 17(6):605-634.
Manning, J.P. and J.H. Churchill, 2003 in prep, "Estimates of dispersion from clustered-drifter deployments on the Southern Flank of Georges Bank", submitted in-house.
McGillicuddy, D.J., C.A. Stock, D.M. Anderson, and R.P. Signell, 2003 In Press. Hindcasting blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. in the western Gulf of Maine. Ecological Forecasting Report, Scavia and Valette-Silvers, Eds. NOAA.
Pettigrew, N.R., D.W.Townsend, H.Xue, J.P. Walinga, P.J. Brickley, and R.D. Hetland, 1998, Observations of the Eastern Manine Coastal Current and its Offshore Extensions in 1994. Jour. of Geophys. Res., 103, C13, 30, 623-30,639.
Wilson, R., D.E. Waliser, and R.L. Swanson, 2001, "Relationship between American lobster mortality in Long Island Sound and prevailing water column conditions", 2nd Annual Long Island Sound Lobster Health Symposium, New York and Conneticut Sea Grant.
Wolff, N. and L. Incze, 2003, Changes in coastal postlarval lobster (Homarus americanus) abundance: Effects of wind forcing and relationships to seawater temperature. Submitted to Can J. of Mar. Sci.
More than 2/3rds of the budget is slotted as "salary". It is expected that each of the seven lead project administrators (4 association reps, Gregory, Farrey, and Manning) will all be devoting at least one full day per week (either their own time or their association's staffs time) to routine eMOLT tasks and an additional six full days per year in attending eMOLT meetings.
In the case of the association representatives (Cates, Casoni, Spinazzola, and Farrey), nearly half of the "routine eMOLT tasks" is involved with outreach activity and half with data processing activity. The "outreach activity" includes a combination of a) personal contacts, b) submitting monthly eMOLT notices to local news publications/newsletters, and c) making presentations at meetings. Each of these tasks are described in detail below.
"Personal contacts" have already been part of the standard eMOLT protocol. As in the past few years, reps will continue to contact each of the temperature probe participants at least every six months by either visiting them, talking to them directly on the phone, or mailing them packets of information that pertain directly to them and their data.
"Personal contact" practice will now be extended to individuals who report drifter sightings. It will be the inshore-association representative's responsibility to provide personal and immediate feedback to any individual reporting a drifter. In cases where the reporter is a member of a particular association, it will be the responsibility of that association to provide feedback. Other cases will be assigned by the GoMLF. This means that all reps will access the database of sightings on a weekly basis (Jul-Nov 2004) and determine which, if any, new reports included new contact information.
The "monthly eMOLT notices"/publications will include one page writeups in the association newsletters and, on a bi-monthly basis ( Jul-Nov 2004), some other form of media. The other forms of media may include those publications listed in the project plan above as well as other newsletters published by related projects (Lobster Institute, Lobster Conservancy, New England Aquarium, the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, and publications for pleasure boaters).
The "presentations at meetings" will require eMOLT representatives attending a variety of meetings during the Fall and Winter of 2004 in order to inform the lobster community and other marine users of the summer eMOLT IV drifter deployment. Each association will be required to include an eMOLT update at each association meeting. They are also required to give the updated PowerPoint presentations to both their association and some other fisheries groups (see Table I below). The GOMLF will be conducting most of the outreach and are funded accordingly. They will attend each of the seven lobster zone meetings, the Lobster Advisory Council meetings, and several summertime fish festivals. They will present at least one PowerPoint presentation at each council meeting both before the first drifter deployments and after the last drifter deployments.
Table I. Fisheries groups that will be informed about eMOLT drifter project with either PowerPoint presentations at one of their meetings or by one page notices in their respective newsletters all prior to 1 August, 2004.
|Group||eMOLT representative responsible|
|Cobscocook Bay Fisheries Association||DELA|
|Cobscocook Bay Resource Center||DELA|
|Urchin Zone Council||DELA|
|East Coast Pelagic Association||MaLA|
|Boston Harbor Lobstermen's Association||MaLA|
|Massachusetts Fishermen's Partnership||MaLA|
|New England Seafood Coalition||GoMLF|
|Gulf of Maine Fishermen's Alliance||GoMLF|
|East Coast Tuna Association||MaLA|
|Coastal Conservation Association||GoMLF|
|Fish Festivals (6)||GoMLF|
|New England Aquarium||MaLA|
|Cape Cod Commercial Hook Fishermen's Association||MaLA|
|Outer Cape Lobstermen's Association||MaLA|
|Northwest Atlantic Marine Alliance||GoMLF|
|Associated Fisheries of Maine||GoMLF|
|Gulf of Maine Research Institute||GoMLF|
|Maine Fishermen's Cooperative||GoMLF|
The "data processing activity" , in the case of association reps (especially in Spinazzola's where some participants will be conducting focused multi-probe deployments), still involves the temperature records and the documentation. (The drifter data processing will all be automated through the Interactive Voice Response system since the information gets loaded directly into an ORACLE database.) There is a significant amount of data processing needed to maintain the temperature probe project. This means i) merging mooring-log documentation into electronic form, ii) downloading temperature data in batches, and iii) subjecting batches of probes to calibration baths. All these processing steps should be conducted PRIOR to quarterly administrators meetings and, along with the outreach activities noted above, are requirements for salary allotments. The proportion of funding slated for each association has been adjusted over the years according to both the distribution of work and number of active participants (see Tables I and II).
In Gregory's case, the Southern Maine Community College will be awarded two lump sums for 1) $6k for material cost (in late 2003) and 2) $6k for the labor cost (after delivery of "eMOLT drifters" to the Maine Fish Forum in March 2004). They will be funded for their time and effort in purchasing the materials, supervising the students during the construction process, and distributing a portion of the labor cost to the students. Most of the work will be conducted over the winter break so as not to interfere with their school work.
In Farrey's case, the Gulf of Maine Lobster Foundation will be awarded $14k to oversee the project in general, to distribute the funds, to generate quarterly budget sheets, to assist in organizing administrators meetings, to setup representation of eMOLT at annual forums, and to present eMOLT information at meetings (in addition to those required by the association reps) as noted above.
In Manning's case, "routine eMOLT tasks" continues to involve a) processing batches of temperature data from each association, b) maintaining the databases, c) preparing quarterly reports, d) coordinating data exchange with GoMOOS.org web site and e) investigating alternative funding sources for the future. With this new Phase IV component, a portion of his time will entail analysis and dissemination of the drifter data. This includes extracting the data from the IVR system, importing to a local ORACLE database, generating plots per drifter, animating drifter trajectories, as well as conducting circulation model runs of both the projected and hindcast simulations. The projected runs will be made on climatological flow fields prior to deployment while the hindcast will be conducted subsequent to each batch being recovered or exiting the study area. While his salary is covered by NOAA/NMFS, an overhead is now charged to the project to cover the 10% of his time involved with this project. The majority of the data collection and circulation model work associated with eMOLT is directly related to his duty as an oceanographer at NOAA and coordinator of a newly-formed consortium of New England-based coastal ocean circulation modelers (see circ/nenocm.html ).
Three line items in the budget refer to "compensation to participants". As in previous phases of eMOLT, we do not provide compensation for the routine task of lashing & documenting temperature probes, however, where extensive effort is involved such as the assembly, deployment, or recovery of drifters, associations generally agree that the individuals deserve at least some sort of reward for taking time from their fishing schedule. These operations will result in several hours of work on the part of the participant in an already busy season. The task of "assembling" the drifters is a distinct task. The selected lobstermen may opt to have a student perform this step. The act of recovering a satellite drifter is a distinct task that will be funded appropriately depending on the circumstances. In AOLA's case, to ask an offshore lobstermen to specifically deploy a long string of probes in a particular cross-isobath arrangement at distinct depths and to maintain an accurate log of that activity requires compensation as well.
The equipment expenses are office supplies (such as a set of LCD projectors for outreach
presentations at association level and up-to-date software), a small set of satellite tracks drifters, a
large set of "eMOLT drifters", and, for the offshore association especially, an additional set of
temperature probes. The satellite drifters used in previous experiments are built by Brightwaters Inc.
RESUMES OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS AND KEY
James P. Manning
NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service
166 Water St.
Woods Hole, Ma. 02543
Tel: 508-495-2211, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
B.A. Mathematics, 1979, University of Maine Orono
M.S. Oceanography, 1987, University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography
NMFS Woods Hole, Ma.
1987(summer):Physical Oceanography Instructor
Acadia Institute of Oceanography, Seal Harbor, Me.
1983-1987: Marine Research Specialist
Graduate School of Oceanography, URI
1982-1983: Research Assistant
Center for Coastal Studies, Provincetown, Ma.
Relevant Peer Reviewed Publications
Manning,J.P. and D.R.Watts, 1989, Temperature and Velocity Structure of the Gulf Stream Northeast of Cape Hatteras, Jour. Geophys. Res., 94(C4):4879-4890.
Manning, J.P., 1991, Middles Atlantic Bight Salinity: interannual variability, Cont. Shelf. Res. 11(2):123-137.
Manning, J.P. and R. Beardsley, 1996, Assessment of Georges Bank Recirculation from Eulerian Current Observations in the Great South Channel, Deep Sea Res. II, Vol. 43(7-8):1575-1600.
Manning, J.P., R.G. Lough, C.E. Naimie, and J.H. Churchill, 2001, Modelling the effect of a slope water intrusion on advection of fish larvae in May 1995 on Georges Bank, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 58:985-993.
Mountain,D.G. and J.P. Manning, 1992, Seasonal and Interannual Variability in the Properties of the surface waters of the Gulf of Maine. Cont.Shf.Res. 14(13/14):1555-1581.
Bisagni,JJ, R.C.Beardsley, C.M.Rusham, J.P.Manning, and W.J.Williams, 1996, Historical and recent evidence of Scotian Shelf Water on southern Georges Bank, Deep Sea Res. II (7-8):1439-1472.
Schlitz, R., J.P. Manning, and K. Smith, 2001, Structure and transport of Alongshelf currents across the Southern Flank of Georges Bank during late summer, Deep Sea Res. II. 48:341-372.
Patrice M. Farrey
1 High Street, Suite#5
Kennebunk, ME 04043
Executive Director November 2001 / Present
Gulf of Maine Lobster Foundation - York, Maine
Executive Director November 2001 / Present
Associate Director March 2000 / November 2001
Maine Lobstermen's Association - York, Maine
Serve as industry liaison for issues affecting the lobster industry.
Serve on the Board of Directors of organizations including Northwest Atlantic Marine Alliance (NAMA), Maine Fishermen's Forumn, and the Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GOMOOS)
Conservation Associate October 1998 / March 2000
New England Aquarium - Boston, Massachusetts
Monitor fisheries management, policy and conservation issues through attendance of various and liaisons with fishing industry and other stakeholders.
Organize multi-stakeholder forums on a variety of issues including lobster stock assessment and electronic information exchange and prepare forum report
Perform administrative activities (budget, grant writing, phones, correspondence, etc.).
Resource Center Director April 1997 / October 1998
Marine Environmental Research Institute - Brooklin, Maine
Independently managed all aspects of marine education center (staff, publicity, budget,
Developed and managed marine education and community outreach programs.
Organized panels and wrote Issue Books and Reports for a series of Coastal Awareness Forums.
Planner May 1996 / April 1997 and May 1995 / August 1995
Hancock and Washington County Planning Commision(s) - Ellsworth & Machias, Maine
Advised coastal municipalities and community groups on coastal planning issues.
Developed public education programs, coordinated and facilitated public meetings, and wrote proposals, reports and comprehensive planning chapters.
Coastal Outreach Consultant May 1995 / September 1995
Maine Coastal Program - Augusta, Maine
Coordinated marine debris reduction programs in Stonington and Eastport, Maine.
Organized outreach efforts, planned and facilitated meetings and wrote final reports.
Education and Outreach Intern June 1994 / January 1995
Lake Champlain Basin Program - Grand Isle, Vermont
Organized annual basin-wide celebration of Lake Champlain.
Wrote a proposal for the creation of the Vermont natural resources license plate, approved in 1996.
Peace Corps Recruiter June 1994 / May 1996
United States Peace Corps - Burlington, Vermont
Independently managed all aspects of Vermont Peace Corps Recruiting office.
Conducted recruitment campaigns, public presentations, candidate screening and interviewing.
Founder and Manager of Wheelchair Factory (Peace Corps Volunteer) July 1991 / August 1993
United States Peace Corps, National Council of the Disabled - St. Lucia, Caribbean
Established wheelchair factory. Wrote grants resulting in awards totaling more than
Managed budget and staff; developed training materials; and launched product market campaign.
University of Vermont - Burlington, Vermont
Master of Science - Natural Resource Planning (pending)
University of Maine - Orono, Maine; Year abroad in Salzburg, Austria
Bonnie H. Spinazzola
114 Adams Road
Candia, NH 03034
Abbreviated resume of:
Atlantic Offshore Lobstermen's Association (AOLA)
1998 Executive Director: Atlantic Offshore Lobstermen's Association
Serve as liaison for AOLA members and facilitate discussion and collaboration with local, state, and federal regulatory authorities, as well as scientific and academic communities, to pro-actively and creatively formulate methods with which to maintain a sustainable lobster resource. Ongoing efforts also include issues relative to collaboration among other industry groups, and protection of marine mammals, the environment, and fishery habitat.
1989 Assistant Projects Director: State Coordinator for Fisheries and Defense -United States Senate
1986 Administrative Assistant for the Town of Candia, New Hampshire
1974 Central Connecticut State University
Halfway Pond Rd
Masters in Biology
34 years teaching school in Hanover, Massachusetts.
37 years commercial lobstermen
Secretary/Treasurer for the Massachusetts Lobstermen's Association
Executive Board of the Shore Shore Lobstermen's Association
Executive Board of the East Boat Basin Commercial Fisheries Association
Massachusetts Ocean Management Task Force
CHARLES J. GREGORY, Ph.D.
Home Address: Business Address:
111 Kings Highway 2 Fort Road
Kennebunkport, Maine 04046 South Portland, Maine 04106
(207) 229-5157 (207) 767-9643
Ph.D. Plant Science University of Maine, 1990
M.S. Education University of Maine, 1982
B.S. Biology University of New England, 1980
1992 - Present Full-Time Instructor, Southern Maine Community College (SMCC), South Portland, Maine.
1999 - Present Chair, Department of Science, SMCC
2002 - Present Chair, Division of Arts and Sciences, SMCC
2003 - Present Chair, Department of Liberal Studies, SMCC
1997 Summer Intern, Maine Department of Marine Resources, Boothbay Harbor, Maine, sponsored by the National Science Foundation in conjunction with Partners for Environmental Technology Education (PETE).
1989 - 1992 Oceanography Instructor, University of Southern Maine, Portland & Gorham, Maine.
1990 - 1992 Adult Education Science Teacher in the Maine towns of Biddeford, Old Orchard Beach and Waterboro (Massabesic H.S.).
1991 Biology Teacher, Cape Elizabeth High School, Cape Elizabeth, Maine.
1988 Visiting Biology Instructor, Colby College, Waterville, Maine.
1992 - Present Member SMCC Faculty Senate: President (1995); Vice President (1994); Recorder (1993).
1996 - Present SMCC Faculty Association: Vice President (1997-1998).
2001 - Present SMCC Academics Committee: Chair (2001-2002).
2001 - 2003 Member, SMCC Foundation Board.
1995 - 2002 SMTC* Curriculum Committee; Chair 1997-2001.
2001 - Present Board of Directors, Marine Animal Lifeline (MAL); Chair (2003 - Present).
2000 - Present Board of Directors, Friends of Casco Bay (FOCB); President (2000 - 2002); Vice President (1998 - 2000).
1997 - Present Project Consultant, Guest Educator and Volunteer, Maine's Toxic Marine Phytoplankton Monitoring Project, Boothbay Harbor, ME.
2000 Presented "Industry's role in designing an aquaculture curriculum" at Aquaculture America 2000, New Orleans, Louisiana, and at the 5th Annual Rhode Island Aquaculture Conference, Newport, Rhode Island.
1999 Presented "Developing an Aquaculture Curriculum in a two-year public college" at the Northeast PETE Instructor Conference, Baltimore, Maryland.
1997 & 1998 Presented "The role of MATE in Northeastern Aquaculture Education" at the New England Board of Higher Education AQUA meetings in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (1997) and Bridgeport, Connecticut (1998).
1995 & 2002 Alpha Chi Nu Chapter of the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society, "Outstanding Faculty of the Year" Award and Honorary Member.
1997, 98, 00 & 02 Who's Who Among America's Teachers.
1997 - 1998 Co-Principal Investigator. SMTC received $25,000 for two years as a Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) partner to develop and implement an aquaculture curriculum.
1998 Co-Principal Investigator. SMTC received $20,000 in ADAM computer software for SMTC's Anatomy and Physiology laboratory.
1994 Solicited and received a $10,000 honorary donation for computer hardware and software used in SMTC's Anatomy and Physiology laboratory.
1985 Ketchum Award for "Outstanding Student Presentation," New England Estuarine Research Society, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
1985 George F. Dow Award for "Outstanding Student Research Presentation," University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
1980 "Outstanding Biology Student," University of New England, Biddeford, Maine.
RECENT ARTICLES AND PUBLICATIONS
Gregory, C.J. 2002. Southern Maine Technical College, Aquaculture & Service Learning: A success story. Canadian Aquaculture B2B Industry Guide 2002, Ontario, Canada.
Gregory, C.J. 2001. Aquaculture at Southern Maine Technical College. Canadian Aquaculture B2B Industry Guide 2001, Ontario, Canada.
Gregory, C.J. et.al. 1998. A Guide to Common Marine Organisms Along the Coast of Maine. Maine/New Hampshire Sea Grant and University of Maine Cooperative Extension.
Gregory, C.J. 1993. It's not just `Red Tide' anymore. Current: The Journal of Marine Education 11 (4): 3-7.
Newell, C.R. and C.J. Gregory. 1991. "Phytoplankton assemblages at mussel grow-out sites in Maine from July, 1989 to June, 1991." Poster at the Fifth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Newport, Rhode Island, 1991.
Gregory, C.J. 1990. Gulf of Maine microplankton during 1987: abundance, biovolume, biomass, and production estimates. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
DESCRIPTION OF PRIOR RESULTS
The most appropriate description of eMOLT results is best presented as a collection of graphics with extensive captions that provide our explanation and interpretation of the information gathered. These graphics are culled from an extensive set of figures posted on the emolt.org site under the "What's New" page. This site is designed for occasional browsing by the general public but primarily aimed at the individuals participating in the project. It is expected that the average participant may only view the web on a monthly or even less frequent basis and therefore is only interested in what new information has been gather since the last viewing. We present them here in that format, figures highlighting results over the last year of eMOLT:
Table II. eMOLT statistics as of 7 July 2003
# eMOLT sites
150 # total temperature readings
933093 # total salinity readings
62714 # total drifter sightings
27 # total people involved
126 # people who have actually
returned temperature data
60+ # AOLA participants
13 # MaLA participants
29 # MeLA participants
33 # DELA participants
Appendix I. List of temperature probe participants
(as of June 2003):
3- "has probe(s)" and 4- "has probe(s) and has returned data":
ATLANTIC OFFSHORE LOBSTERMEN
4 Bennett Paul Newport RI
4 Campanale RobRoy Pt. Judith
4 Christopher Scott Pt. Judith
4 Colbert Bob Sandwich
4 Colbert Denny Sandwich Ma
4 Cote Bro Hyannis Ma
4 Mataronas Gary Tiverton RI
4 Moore Grant Westport Ma.
4 Palombo Marc Sandwich
4 Peabody John Pt. Judith
4 Shafmaster Jonathan Newington NH
4 Spencer David Newport
4 Violet Jim Newport RI
4 Backman Ralph Beals Island
3 Bragdon Robert Winter Harbor Me.
4 Bridges Leroy Deer Isle
4 Cates Brian Cutler
4 Cates Jeremy Cutler
4 Chipman John Sr. Birch Harbor Me.
4 Dassatt Mike Belfast Me
3 Day Walter Vinalhaven
3 Farrin Clive BoothbayHarbor
4 Faulkingham Michael Winter Harbor Me.
4 Lemieux Norbert Cutler Me
4 Lemieux Nick Cutler
4 Robbins Stevie Stonington Me. 04681
4 ANDERSON WILLIAM LUBEC
4 BEAR JR Ted&Faith ORRS ISLAND ME
4 Baines Bob Spruce Head Me.
0 Burch John Rockland Me
4 CARTER JON HULLS COVE ME
4 Carter Shane Bar Harbor Me
4 Carver Dwight Jonesport Me
4 FLANIGAN PETER RYE NH
3 Fernald Bruce Isleford Me
3 GOLTER JOE Greenland, NH
4 Gamage Arnold Jr. S. Bristol Me.
3 Hutchins Ed Cape Porpoise Me
4 INGALLS ROBERT BUCKS HARBOR ME
4 Johnson David Long Island Me.
4 MCLAIN BRIAN NEW HARBOR ME
4 MacVane Tom Long Island, Me
4 MerrillIII JOHN (Jack) NORTHEAST HARBOR ME
3 Miller Dan Tenants Harbor Me
2 Morowski Robert Saco Me
4 NuddJr Bob Hampton NH
4 Smith Jay Nobleboro Me.
4 Thomson Mattie Monhegan Island Me
4 Tripp Jim Spruce Head Me.
3 Wells Mark Phippsburg
3 White Jeff York Me
3 Baldwin Lew Humarock
3 Barrett John Cohasset Ma
4 Brown Alex Provincetown Ma.
4 Carroll Emmett Chilmark Ma
3 Carver John Green Harbor Ma.
3 Carver Steve Green Harbor Ma.
4 Dauphinee Fred Scituate
4 Doherty Bill Hingham
4 Haviland John Green Harbor
4 Jesse Todd Plymouth Ma
4 Kandrick David Sandwich
4 Keane Stephen Marshfield Ma.
3 Mahoney Chad Hull Ma.
3 Manning Chris Hull
4 Marcella Bob Hull Ma
4 Martin Bobby/Rob Plymouth Ma
3 Mason Phil Marshfield
4 Oehme Kurt Sandwich
4 Ryan Skip/Chris Squantum Ma
3 Sauvageau Therese Beverly
4 Sawyer Arthur/Sook Gloucester Ma. 01930
4 Souza Billy Provincetown Ma.
3 Trowbridge Larry Scituate Ma.
4 Tufts Mike Glouchester
4 Tupper Mike Rockport Ma
2 Tooley Marybeth
Appendix II. List of Drifter Reporters
(as of 3 July 2003)
Mike Parenteau (2)
Peter Flanigan (2)
Appendix III. List of Drifter Makers
(SMCC students that helped make prototype "eMOLT drifters" on 21-22 May 2003)
Rachel Clemens Grisham