Spring 2010 Update: Data Sources
SST was derived by combining data from three sources: the Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer onboard the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (AVHRR-POES); the MODIS Terra sensor; and the MODIS Aqua sensor. The data represent the surface ocean temperature, not the temperature of the entire water column.
Synoptic views of surface concentrations of chlorophyll a were derived from the Sea-viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomater on the Aqua satellite (MODIS-Aqua). Data from these ocean color sensors were obtained from the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group. The data sources were combined to represent trends in chlorophyll a during 2009. Chlorophyll a is considered a proxy of phytoplankton biomass present in the near-surface water.
Zooplankton biomass was derived from shipboard surveys of the U.S. Northeast Shelf ecosystem. Zooplankton provide the link from primary producers to higher trophic levels. From 1977-1987, the MArine Resources Monitoring, Assessment, & Prediction (MARMAP) program conducted intensive surveys from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Nova Scotia. These efforts continued at a reduced level through the 1990s and are ongoing today as the Ecosystem Monitoring program (EcoMon). Currently, 30 plankton samples are taken 6 times a year in each of four ecosystem subareas: Middle Atlantic Bight, Southern New England, Georges Bank, and the Gulf of Maine (resulting in approximately 720 zooplankton biomass samples annually). Zooplankton are identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible, resulting in taxon specific data on abundance and distribution.
Thermal habitats were computed using the NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature Analysis.
Species assemblage data were constructed using the stratified mean biomass of the top fifty species caught during the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys. The spring data presented are from 1968-2008.
Long term SSTs were extracted from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST, version 3) dataset. This dataset is based on the temperature compilation of the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) SST dataset, and contains reconstructed SST fields (obtained by interpolation) in regions with sparse data.
The percent diet composition of ctenophores in spiny dogfish was derived from the Food Habits Database, collected from shipboard fishery independent surveys of the U.S. Northeast Shelf ecosystem.