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CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Executive Summary
Introduction
Table 1. Assessment Summary
Stock Assessments for 2001
List of Appendices
List of Stock Assessments for All Years

NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-168

U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments -- 2001

Gordon T. Waring1, Janeen M. Quintal1, and Steven L. Schwartz2, Editors
with contributions from (listed alphabetically): Phillip J. Clapham1, Timothy V.N. Cole1, Carol P. Fairfield2, Aleta Hohn3, Debra L. Palka1, Marjorie C. Rossman1, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and Cynthia Yeung2
1National Marine Fisheries Serv., Woods Hole Lab., 166 Water St., Woods Hole, MA  02543
2National Marine Fisheries Service, 75 Virginia Beach Dr., Miami, FL 33149-1003
3National Marine Fisheries Service, 101 Pivers Island Rd., Beaufort, NC 28516-9722

Web version posted September 26, 2002

Citation: Waring GT, Quintal JM, Schwartz SL, editors. 2001. US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments -- 2001. NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE 168; 307 p.

Information Quality Act Compliance: In accordance with section 515 of Public Law 106-554, the Northeast Fisheries Science Center completed both technical and policy reviews for this report. These predissemination reviews are on file at the NEFSC Editorial Office.

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Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
TABLE 1. A SUMMARY(including footnotes) OF ATLANTIC MARINE MAMMAL STOCK ASSESSMENT
REPORTS FOR STOCKS OF MARINE MAMMALS UNDER NMFS AUTHORITY THAT OCCUPY
WATERS UNDER USA JURISDICTION

STOCK ASSESSMENTS FOR 2001:
NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE (Eubalaena glacialis): Western Stock

HUMPBACK WHALE (Megaptera novaeangliae): Gulf of Maine Stock

FIN WHALE (Balaenoptera physalus): Western North Atlantic Stock

BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus): Western North Atlantic Stock

MINKE WHALE (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): Canadian East Coast Stock

SPERM WHALE (Physeter macrocephalus): North Atlantic Stock

CUVIER'S BEAKED WHALE (Ziphius cavirostris): Western North Atlantic Stock

MESOPLODON BEAKED WHALES (Mesoplodon spp.): Western North Atlantic Stock

RISSO'S DOLPHIN (Grampus griseus): Western North Atlantic Stock

LONG-FINNED PILOT WHALE (Globicephala melas): Western North Atlantic Stock

SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE (Globicephala macrorhynchus): Western North Atlantic Stock

WHITE-SIDED DOLPHIN (Lagenorhynchus acutus): Western North Atlantic Stock

COMMON DOLPHIN (Delphinus delphis): Western North Atlantic Stock

BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Western North Atlantic Coastal Stock

HARBOR PORPOISE (Phocoena phocoena): Gulf of Maine/Bay of Fundy Stock

HARBOR SEAL (Phoca vitulina): Western North Atlantic Stock

GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock

HARP SEAL (Phoca groenlandica): Western North Atlantic Stock


Appendices
APPENDIX I.

West Indian Manatees Stock Assessments - Florida and Antilles Stocks

APPENDIX II. Stock assessment reports not updated in the year 2001:
  SEI WHALE (Balaenoptera borealis): Nova Scotia Stock (2000)
  DWARF SPERM WHALE (Kogia simus): Western North Atlantic Stock (2000)
  PYGMY SPERM WHALE (Kogia breviceps): Western North Atlantic Stock (2000)
  KILLER WHALE (Orcinus orca): Western North Atlantic Stock (1995)
  PYGMY KILLER WHALE (Feresa attenuata): Western North Atlantic Stock (1995)
  NORTHERN BOTTLENOSE WHALE (Hyperoodon ampullatus): Western North Atlantic Stock (1998)
  WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN (Lagenorhynchus albirostris): Western North Atlantic Stock (1997)
  ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN (Stenella frontalis): Western North Atlantic Stock (2000)
  PANTROPICAL SPOTTED DOLPHIN (Stenella attenuata): Western North Atlantic Stock (2000)
  STRIPED DOLPHIN (Stenella coeruleoalba): Western North Atlantic Stock (2000)
  SPINNER DOLPHIN (Stenella longirostris): Western North Atlantic Stock (1998)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Western North Atlantic Offshore Stock (2000)
  HOODED SEAL (Cystophora cristata): Western North Atlantic Stock (1998)
  SPERM WHALE (Physeter macrocephalus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  DWARF SPERM WHALE (Kogia simus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (2000)
  PYGMY SPERM WHALE (Kogia breviceps): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (2000)
  BRYDE'S WHALE (Balaenoptera edeni): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  CUVIER'S BEAKED WHALE (Ziphius cavirostris): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  BLAINVILLE’S BEAKED WHALE (Mesoplodon densirostris): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  GERVAIS' BEAKED WHALE (Mesoplodon europaeus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Stock (1995)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf Edge and Continental Slope Stock (1995)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Western Gulf of Mexico Coastal Stock (1997)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Stock (1997)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Eastern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Stock (1997)
  BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus): Gulf of Mexico Bay, Sound, and Estuarine Stocks (2000)
  ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN (Stenella frontalis): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  PANTROPICAL SPOTTED DOLPHIN (Stenella attenuata): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  STRIPED DOLPHIN (Stenella coeruleoalba): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  SPINNER DOLPHIN (Stenella longirostris): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN (Steno bredanensis): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  CLYMENE DOLPHIN (Stenella clymene): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  FRASER'S DOLPHIN (Lagenodelphis hosei): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  KILLER WHALE (Orcinus orca): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  FALSE KILLER WHALE (Pseudorca crassidens): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  PYGMY KILLER WHALE (Feresa attenuata): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  DWARF SPERM WHALE (Kogia simus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (2000)
  PYGMY SPERM WHALE (Kogia breviceps): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (2000)
  MELON-HEADED WHALE (Peponocephala electra): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  RISSO'S DOLPHIN (Grampus griseus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)
  SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE (Globicephala macrorhynchus): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock (1995)


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge contributions by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) Sea Sampling Investigation, Dana Hartley (Northeast Regional Office), Blair Mase of the Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC). Also, we acknowledge advice and comments provided by: Jon Gibson, Richard Merrick, Fred Serchuk and Fred Wenzel (NEFSC); Patricia Rosel (SEFSC), Kim Thounhurst (NER); Diane Borggaard and Kathy Wang (Southeast Regional Office); Solange Brault, Joseph DeAlteris, James Gilbert, Robert Kenney, James Mead, Daniel Odell, Andrew Read, Randall Wells and Sharon Young of the Atlantic Scientific Review Group, Tom Eagle and Emily Menashes NMFS Office of Protected Resources and Gary Stenson of the Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John’s, Newfoundland. We also thank the Marine Mammal Commission, the Ocean Conservancy and the Humane Society of the United States for their constructive comments and advice.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Under the 1994 amendments of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) were required to generate stock assessment reports (SAR) for all marine mammal stocks in waters within the U.S. Exclusive Econom ic Zone (EEZ). The first reports for the Atlantic (includes the Gulf of Mexico) were published in July 1995 (Blaylock et al. 1995). The MMPA requires NMFS and USFWS to review these reports ann ually for strategic stocks of marine mammals and at least every 3 years for stocks determined to be non-strategic. The second edition of the SARs (1996 assessments) was published in October 1997 and contained all the previous reports, but major revisions and updating were only completed for strategic stocks (Waring et al. 1997). Updated reports were identified by a 1997 date-stamp at the top right corner at the beginning of each report. The 3rd edition of the SARs (1998 assessments) only contained reports for Atlantic stocks, and updated reports were identified by a 1998 date-stamp (Waring et al. 1999). The 4th edition of the SARs (1999 assessments) only contained reports for Atlantic stocks, and updated reports were identified by a 1999 date-stamp (Waring et al. 1999). The 5th edition of the SARs contains all NMFS reports for the Atlantic (includes the Gulf of Mexico), and the USFW S West Indian manatee assessments. Updated reports were identified by a 2000 date-stamp (Waring et al. 2000). The current (2001) report contains updated assessments for Atlantic strategic stocks, and for Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks for which significant new information was available. These reports are identified by a November 2001 date-stamp at the beginning of each report. Further, Appendices I and II contain the West Indian Manatees stock assessments and stock assessments not updated in the year 2001, respectively.

This report was prepared by staff of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC), Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). NMFS staff presented the reports at the November 2000 meeting of the Atlantic Scientific Review Group (ASRG), and subsequent revisions were based on their contributions and constructive criticism.

Table 1 contains a summary, by species, of the information included in the stock assessments, and also indicates those that have been revised since the 2000 publication. A total of 18 of the 60 Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stock assessment reports were revised for 2001. Most of the proposed changes incorporate new information into sections on population size and mortality estimates. The revised SARs include 12 strategic and 6 non-strategic stocks. Information on human interactions (fishery and ship strikes) between the right whale, humpback whale, fin whale and minke whale stocks were re-reviewed and updated. This is a working document and individual stock
assessment reports will be updated as new information becomes available and as changes to marine mammal stocks and fisheries occur. The authors solicit any new information or comments which would improve future stock assessment reports.


INTRODUCTION

Section 117 of the 1994 amendments to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) requires that an annual stock assessment report (SAR) for each stock of marine mammals that occurs in waters under USA jurisdiction, be prepared by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), in consultation with regional Scientific Review Groups (SRG). The SRGs are a broad representation of marine mammal and fishery scientists and members of the commercial fishing industry mandated to review the marine mammal stock assessments and provide advice to the Assistant Administrator for NMFS. The reports are then made available on the Federal Register for public review and comment before final publication.

The MMPA requires that each SAR contain several items, including: (1) a description of the stock, including its geographic range; (2) a minimum population estimate, a maximum net productivity rate, and a description of current population trend, including a description of the information upon which these are based; (3) an estimate of the annual human-caused mortality and serious injury of the stock, and, for a strategic stock, other factors that may be causing a decline or impeding recovery of the stock, including effects on marine mammal habitat and prey; (4) a description of the commercial fisheries that interact with the stock, including the estimated number of vessels actively participating in the fishery and the level of incidental mortality and serious injury of the stock by each fishery on an annual basis; (5) a statement categorizing the stock as strategic or not, and why; and (6) an estimate of the potential biological removal (PBR) level for the stock, describing the information used to calculate it.

The MMPA also requires that SARs be updated annually for stocks which are specified as strategic stocks, or for which significant new information is available, and on ce every three years for nonstrategic stocks. Following enactment of the 1994 amendments, the NMFS and FWS held a series of workshops to develop guidelines for preparing the SARs. The first set of stock assessments for the Atlantic Coast (including the Gulf of Mexico) were published in July 1995 in the NOAA Technical Memorandum series (Blaylock et al. 1995). In April 1996, the NMFS held a workshop to review proposed additions and revisions to the guidelines for preparing SARs (Wade and Angliss 1997). Guidelines developed at the workshop were followed in preparing the 1996 (Waring et al. 1997), 1998 (Waring et al. 1999), 1999 (Waring et al. 1999), 2000 (Waring et al. 2000) SARs. A 1997 SAR was not produced.

In this document, major revisions and updating of the SARs were only completed for Atlantic Coast strategic stocks and Atlantic Coast stocks for which significant new information were available. These are identified by the November 2001 date-stamp at the top right corner at the beginning of each report.

REFERENCES

Blaylock, R.A., J.W. Hain, L.J. Hansen, D.L. Palka and G.T. Waring. 1995. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFSC-363, 211 pp.

Wade, P.R. and R.P. Angliss. 1997. Guidelines for assessing marine mammal stocks: Report of the GAMMS workshop April 3-5, 1996, Seattle, Washington. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-OPR-12, 93 pp.

Waring, G.T., D.L. Palka, K.D. Mullin, J.H.W. Hain, L.J. Hansen and K.D. Bisack. 1997. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE-114, 250 pp.

Waring , G.T., D.L. Palka, P.J. Clapham, S. Swartz, M . Rossman, T.V.N. Cole, K.D. Bisack and L.J. Hansen. 1999. U.S. Atlantic marine mammal stock assessments-1998. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE-116, 182 pp.

Waring, G.T., D.L. Palka, P.J. Clapham, S. Swartz, M.C. Rossman, T.V.N. Cole, L.J. Hansen, K.D. Bisack, K.D. Mullin, R.S. Wells, D.K. Odell and N.B. Barros. 1999. U. S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments - 1999. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE-153, 196 pp.

Waring, G.T., J.M. Quintal and S. Swartz. 2000. U. S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments - 2000. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE-162, 303 pp.

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