Northeast Fisheries Science Center

Brodeur's Guide to Otoliths of Some Northwest Atlantic Fishes

This is the companion website for the second edition of Brodeur (1979). The second edition includes the original images of the sagittal otoliths for 51 common fishes of the Northwest Atlantic. Portions of the text have been updated and new citations have been included to give it a more contemporary perspective. The second edition is also available in print here. The original document is also available here (PDF format; 72 pp).

Contents

Foreword Otolith Structure
Introduction Species Selection
Methods Acknowledgments
  Literature Cited

Otolith Images
Acadian redfish Atlantic wolffish Fourspot flounder Offshore hake Summer flounder
Alewife Bigeye sculpin Goosefish Oyster toadfish Tautog
Alligatorfish Blackbelly rosefish Grubby Pollock Tilefish
American plaice Black sea bass Gulf Stream flounder Red hake Weakfish
American sand lance Blueback herring Haddock Scup White hake
American shad Bluefish Longfin hake Sea raven Windowpane
Atlantic argentine Butterfish Longhorn sculpin Silver hake Winter flounder
Atlantic cod Cunner Marlin-spike Spotted hake Witch flounder
Atlantic halibut Cusk Northern searobin Striped bass Wrymouth
Atlantic herring Fourbeard rockling Ocean pout Striped searobin Yellowtail flounder
Atlantic mackerel

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(File Modified Dec. 05 2014)


Foreword

On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of Brodeur (1979), this guide is being issued in an updated second edition with a companion website. This guide is one of many guides used by fishery scientists, fish physiologists, zooarcheologists, etc., to identify otoliths of Atlantic Ocean fishes. Other more recent examples of otolith guides are: Hunt (1992), Campana (2004), Tuset et al. (2008), and Baremore and Bethea (2009).

Dr. Brodeur's guide to otoliths still has a place in our research today. It includes some species or some sizes of fish simply not found in any otolith guide for the marine waters of the Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, and southern New England. A dog-eared copy of Brodeur (1979) still goes out on our Center's research vessels.

In this new, electronic version, various changes have been made. The names of fishes have been updated to conform with Nelson et al. (2004). Newer references have been integrated into the text to give it a contemporary perspective of the literature. There is also a new montage feature that allows you to create a customized plate of otolith images.

Errors that existed in the original have been eliminated. American eel and round herring were omitted from this version because of erroneous information regarding either the fish size or the otolith size. Atlantic menhaden and armored sea robin were also omitted because there was no fish size recorded. The images for blueback herring and grubby have been switched because they had been incorrectly assigned in the original document. As in the original, there is no documentation on which sagittal otolith (left or right) was used nor labeling of the posterior—anterior orientation of the drawings.


Richard S. McBride
National Marine Fisheries Service
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
December 2009

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Introduction

Fish earstones, which scientists call otoliths, are used by bony fish for hearing and balance. The value of otoliths for determining the age of fish has long been recognized by fishery biologists (Jackson 2007). Scientists involved in fisheries stock assessment use otoliths to age fish and thereby to estimate how old fish live, how fast they grow, and to predict how many fish will be available next year. There have been special symposia convened on the subject (Bagenal 1974, Summerfelt and Hall 1987, Stevenson and Campana 1992, Secor et al. 1995, Begg et al. 2005), and there are practical guides for preparing otoliths to estimate fish age (Jearld 1983, Penttila and Dery 1988, Secor et al. 1992, VanderKooy 2009).

Other scientists have used otoliths for a variety of purposes. They have been used to investigate changes in marine populations that occurred before modern fishing practices, to speculate on the evolutionary relationships between species, or to infer the fish diets of marine predators or even of pre-historic peoples.

Otoliths have become an important paleobiological tool (Campbell 1929, Frizzel and Dante 1965, Casteel 1974b, Schwarzhans 1978, Elder et al. 1996, Wurster and Patterson. 2003). Wigley and Stinton (1973) examined sediments from the Northwest Atlantic and found high densities of otoliths which they were able to assign to at least 26 species.

Otoliths are used to differentiate between closely allied species (Schmidt 1969, Casteel 1974a, Price 1978, and Chao 1978) or to investigate their evolutionary relationships (Nolf 1985, Maisey 1987, Nolf 1993). Minute but constant intraspecific variations in otolith structure have been used to identify stocks or races within a fish population (Parrish and Sharman 1958, Kotthaus 1961, Messieh 1972, Rojo 1977, Begg and Brown 2000, Begg et al. 2000, Berg et al. 2005).

Otoliths have been used to construct food webs in marine ecosystems because they are often all that remains as evidence of fish predation. They have been used to identify the diet of sharks (Talent 1976), birds (Suter and Morel 1996), marine mammals (Fitch and Brownell 1968, Perrin et al. 1973, Gamboa 1992, Grellier and Hammond 2005), and prehistoric peoples (Casteel 1972, Hales and Reitz 1992).

A seminal guide to otoliths is found in a series of papers by Frost (1925a-c, 1926a-c, 1927a-b, 1928a-b, 1929, 1930a-b), who illustrated the otoliths of a large group of bony fishes and commented on their relationships. Regional otolith guides exist for coastal fishes of west Africa (Eziuzo 1963), Alaska (Morrow 1979), and Texas (Zimmerman et al. 1987). Recent guides to the otoliths of Atlantic Ocean fishes have been published by Hunt (1992), Campana (2004), Tuset et al. (2008), and Baremore and Bethea (2009). This reissue of Brodeur (1979) includes the original images of the sagittal otoliths for 51 common fishes of the Northwest Atlantic.

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Methods

Otoliths were removed from fresh or frozen fish, caught primarily on NMFS bottom trawl surveys (Reid et al 1999). Other methods of capture included baited traps, hook and line, and scuba diving. Care was taken to insure that only otoliths from adult fish were used for this study as some morphological changes in otolith structure do occur during maturation. Some of the more delicate otoliths were stored in a solution of 40% alcohol and 60% glycerin while the others were simply stored dry in labeled vials. No otoliths were taken from fish preserved in formaldehyde, as preservation in this solution for even a short period of time dissolves away the distinguishing features. The illustrations were drawn with the aid of a binocular dissecting scope, and measurements were made using an ocular micrometer. The Fishery Biology Program of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center maintains an otolith reference collection in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Otolith Structure

The labyrinth system of the teleostean skull actually contains three pairs of otoliths: the sagittae, the lapilli, and the asterisci. The sagittae, found within the sacculi, are by far the largest in most species and are referred to when the general term otolith is used. The sagitta is suspended in lymph fluid obliquely in the sacculus with the concave surface facing medially. The sagitta pair is easily exposed by making a lateral cut through the posterior section of the fish brain. The main function of the sagitta is as a sound receptor. See Blacker (1974), Popper (1977), and Popper et al. (2005) for a more complete description of otolith structure and studies related to it.

There is much variation in otolith size when comparing fish species. In this study, for example, an 82 cm ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) yielded a 4.7 mm otolith, while a smaller (69 cm) haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) had a much larger (21.5 mm) otolith. Intraspecific variation in otolith size, however, is minimal for fish of the same age and size.

Surface structure and general outline of the otolith are also species-specific. Variations and gradations do occur in the transition from juvenile to adult stages, and the fact that only adult otoliths are pictured here should be taken into consideration when using this guide. There is also some variation in otolith shape between individual fish of a given size within a species.

Figure 1 is of a typical otolith and shows some of the key morphological characters used for the identification or differentiation of species. Some of the more important features are general outline and size of otolith, depth of the excisura, length and shape of the rostrum and antirostrum, depth and shape of the sulcus, location and size of surface concretions and ridges. Often several of these characters must be examined simultaneously for closely allied species. Morrow (1979), Nolf (1985), or Tuset et al. (2008) can be consulted for more detailed definitions of the structures labeled in Figure 1 and for a more complete perspective on the variations in otolith shape.

Figure 1

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Species Selection

The species selected are considered important within the study area and are likely to be potential prey of Northwest Atlantic piscivores. Among the list are the most important fish in terms of biomass (Edwards and Bowman 1979) as well as other fish that are commonly caught in bottom trawls (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953, Collette and Klein-MacPhee 2002). Southern demersal species which stray into the study area during the warmer months of the year have been excluded. Inshore, anadromous, and pelagic species may be incompletely represented due to the sampling methodology employed. Common and scientific names follow Nelson et al. (2004).

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Acknowledgments

Louise Dery and Paul Andrews collected and sorted otoliths. Betsey Pratt painstakingly illustrated the otoliths. Roland L. Wigley provided financial support, and Richard W. Langton provided moral support and a critical review of the original manuscript.

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Literature Cited

Bagenal TB, editor. 1974. International symposium on the ageing of fish; 19 July 1973; Reading (UK). Old Woking, Surrey (UK): Unwin Brothers Limited. 234 pp.

Baremore IE, Bethea DM. 2009. A guide to otoliths from fishes of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean [Internet]. Panama City (FL): National Marine Fisheries Service. [cited 2010 March 18]. Available from: http://www.pclab.noaa.gov/content/40_Fisheries_Biology/10_Otolith_Guide/Otolith_Guide.php.

Begg, GA, Brown RW. 2000. Stock identification of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus on Georges Bank based on otolith shape analysis. Trans Am Fish Soc 129(4):935-945.

Begg, GA, Overholtz WJ, Munroe NJ. 2000. The use of internal otolith morphometrics for identification of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) stocks on Georges Bank. Fish Bull US 99:1-14.

Begg, GA, Campana SE,. Fowler AJ, Suthers IM. 2005. Otolith research and application: current directions in innovation and implementation. Mar Freshw Res 56(5):477-483.

Berg E, Sarvas TH, Harbitz A, Fevolden SE, Salberg AB. 2005. Accuracy and precision in stock separation of north-east Arctic and Norwegian coastal cod by otoliths - comparing readings, image analyses and a genetic method. Mar Freshw Res 56(5):753-762.

Bigelow HB, Schroeder WC. 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine [Internet]. Washington (DC): US Fish And Wildlife Service. [cited 2010 March 18]. Available from: http://www.gma.org/fogm/.

Blacker RW. 1974. Recent advances in otolith studies. In: Harden-Jones FR, editor. Sea fisheries research. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 67-90.

Brodeur RD. 1979. Guide to the otoliths of some northwest Atlantic fishes [Internet]. Woods Hole (MA): National Marine Fisheries Service. Woods Hole Laboratory Reference Document 79-36 [cited 2010 March 18]. 72 pp. Available from: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/series/whlrd/whlrd7936.pdf

Campana SE. 2004. Photographic atlas of fish otoliths of the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Can Spec Pub Fish Aquat Sci 133: 1-284.

Campbell RC. 1929. Fish otoliths, their occurrence and value as stratigraphic markers. J Paleontol 3:254-279.

Casteel RW. 1972. Some archaeological uses of fish remains. Am Antiquity 37:404-419.

Casteel RW. 1974a. Identification of the species of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) native to North America based upon otoliths. Copeia 1974(2):305-311.

Casteel RW. 1974b. Use of Pacific salmon otoliths for estimating fish size, with a note on the size of late pleistocene and pliocene salmonids. Northwest Sci 48(3):175-179.

Chao LN. 1978. A basis for classifying western Atlantic Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Washington (DC): National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Technical Report, Circular 415. 64 pp.

Collette BB, Klein-MacPhee G. 2002. Bigelow and Schroeder's 'Fishes of the Gulf of Maine' (3rd ed.). Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution Press. 748 pp.

Edwards RL, Bowman RE. 1979. Food consumed by continental shelf fishes. In: Clepper H, editor. Predator-prey systems in fish communities and their role in fishery management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute. pp. 387- 406.

Elder KL, Jones GA, Bolz G. 1996. Distribution of otoliths in surficial sediments of the US Atlantic continental shelf and slope and potential for reconstructing Holocene fish stocks. Paleoceanography 11(3):359-367.

Eziuzo EN. 1963. The identification of otoliths from West African demersal fish. Bull de l'IFAN (A) 25:488-512.

Fitch JE, Brownell RL Jr. 1968. Fish otoliths in cetaceans stomachs and their importance in interpreting feeding habits. J Fish Res Board Can 25:2561- 2574.

Frizzell DL, Dante JH. 1965. Otoliths of some early Cenozoic fishes of the Gulf Coast. J Paleontol 39:687-718.

Frost GA. 1925a. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes. Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 15(85):152-162.

Frost GA. 1925b. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 15(89):553-560.

Frost GA. 1925c. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 16(95):433-445.

Frost GA. 1926a. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 17(97):99-103.

Frost GA. 1926b. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued), Orders Haplomi, Heteromi, Iniomi, Lyomeri, Hypostomides, Salmopercae, Synentognathi, Microcyprini, Solenichthyes. Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 18(107):465-482.

Frost GA. 1926c. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Histy (9th Series) 18(107):483-489.

Frost GA. 1927a. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued), Orders Allotriognathi, Berycomorphi, Zeomorphi. Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 19(112):439-444.

Frost GA. 1927b. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (9th Series) 20(117):298-304.

Frost GA. 1928a. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (10th Series) 1(4):451-456.

Frost GA. 1928b. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (10th Series) 2(10):328-331.

Frost GA. 1929. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (10th Series) 4(19):120-130.

Frost GA. 1930a. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (10th Series) 5(26):231-238.

Frost GA. 1930b. A comparative study of the otoliths of Neopterygian fishes (continued). Ann Mag Nat Hist (10th Series) 5(30):621-626.

Gamboa DA. 1992. Otolith size versus weight and body-length relationships for eleven fish species of Baja California, Mexico. Fish Bull US 89(4):701-706.

Grellier K, Hammond PS. 2005. Feeding method affects otolith digestion in captive gray seals: Implications for diet composition estimation. Mar Mammal Sci 21(2):296- 306.

Hales LS Jr., Reitz EJ. 1992. Historical changes in age and growth of Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae). J Archaeol Sci 19:73-99.

Hunt JJ. 1992. Morphological characteristics of otoliths for selected fish in the northwest Atlantic. J Northw Atl Fish Sci 13:63-75.

Jackson JR. 2007. Earliest references to age determination of fishes and their early application to the study of fisheries. Fisheries 32(7):321-328.

Jearld A Jr. 1983. Age determination. In: Nielsen LA, Johnson DL, editors. Fisheries techniques. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society. pp. 301-324.

Kotthaus A. 1961. Preliminary remarks about redfish otoliths. Int Comm Northw Atl Fish Spec Pub 3:45-50.

Maisey JG. 1987. Notes on the structure and phyologeny of vertebrate otoliths. Copeia 1987(2):495-499.

Messieh SN. 1972. Use of otoliths in identifying herring stocks in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence and adjacent waters. J Fish Res Bd Can 29(8):1113-1118.

Morrow JE. 1979. Preliminary keys to otoliths of some adult fishes of the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Beaufort Sea. Washington (DC): National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Report, Circular 420. 32 pp.

Nelson JS, Crossman EJ, Espinosa-Perez H, Findley LT, Gilbert CR, Lea RN, Williams JD. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico (6th ed). Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society. Special Publication No. 29. 386 pp.

Nolf D. 1985. Otolithi piscium. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. 145 pp.

Nolf D. 1993. A survey of perciform otoliths and their interest for phylogenetic analysis, with an iconographic synopsis of the percoidei. Bull Mar Sci 52(1):220-239.

Parrish BB, Sharman DP. 1958. Some remarks on methods used in herring 'racial' investigations with special reference to otolith studies. Rap Proces 143:66-80.

Penttila J, Dery LM, editors. 1988. Age determination methods for northwest Atlantic species [Internet]. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Tech Rep NMFS 72 [cited 2010 March 18]. 135 pp. Available from: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/nefsc/publications/classics/penttila1988/penttila1988.htm

Perrin WF, Warner RR, Fiscus CH, Holts DB. 1973. Stomach contents of porpoise, Stenella spp., and yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in mixed-species aggregations. Fish Bull US 71(4):1077-92.

Popper A. 1977. A scanning electron microscope study of the sacculus and lagena in the ears of fifteen species of teleost fishes. J of Morphol 57:391-417.

Popper AN, Ramcharitar J, Campana SE. 2005. Why otoliths? Insights from inner ear physiology and fisheries biology. Mar Freshw Res 56(5):497-504.

Price WS. 1978. Otolith comparison of Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson) and Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill). Can J Zool 56:1216-1218.

Reid RN, Almeida FP, Zetlin CA. 1999. Essential fish habitat source document: Fishery-independent surveys, data sources, and methods. Washington (DC): National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Tech Memo NMFS-NE-122. 39 pp.

Rojo AL. 1977. El crecimiento relativo del otolito como criterio identificador de poblaciones del bacalao del Atlantico Noroeste. Invest Pesq 41(2):239-261.

Schmidt W. 1969. The otolith as a means for differentiation between species of fish of very similar appearance. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the oceanography and fisheries resources of the tropical Atlantic. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 393-396.

Schwarzhans W. 1978. Otolithen aus dem Unter-Pliozqn von Sud-Sizilien und aus der Toscana. Berl geowissenschaftl Abhandlungen 8:1-52.

Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE. 1995. Recent developments in fish otolith research. Columbia (SC): University of South Carolina Press. Belle W. Baruch Library in Marine Science Report No. 19. 735 pp.

Secor DH, Dean JM, Laban EH. 1992. Otolith removal and preparation for microstructural examination. Can Spec Pub Fish Aquat Sci 117:19-57.

Stevenson DK, Campana SE, editors. 1992. Otolith microstructure examination and analysis. Can Spec Pub Fish Aquat Sci 117:i-vi, 1-126.

Summerfelt RC, Hall GE. 1987. Age and growth of fish. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press. 544 pp.

Suter W, Morel P. 1996. Pellet analysis in the assessment of Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo diet: Reducing biases from otolith wear when reconstructing fish length. Colon Waterbirds 19(2):280-284.

Talent LG. 1976. Food habits of the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, in Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California. Calif Fish Game 62(4):286-98.

Tuset VM, Lombarte A, Assis CA. 2008. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic. Sci Mar 72 (Suppl 1):1-203.

VanderKooy S. 2009. A practical handbook for determining the ages of Gulf of Mexico fishes (2nd ed.) [Internet]. Ocean Springs (MS): Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. GSMFC Pub No. 167 [cited 2010 March 18]. 157 pp. Available from: http://www.gsmfc.org/publications/GSMFC Number 167.pdf

Wigley RL, Stinton FC. 1973. Distribution of macroscopic remains of recent animals from marine sediments off Massachusetts. Fish Bull US 71(1):1-40.

Wurster CM, Patterson WP. 2003. Metabolic rate of late Holocene freshwater fish: evidence from delta C-13 values of otoliths. Paleobiology 29(4):492-505.

Zimmerman LS, Steele DG, Meyer JD. 1987. A visual key for the identification of otoliths. Bull Texas Archeol Soc 58:175-200.

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Otolith Images


Acadian redfish
Sebastes fasciatus Storer
fish length 36 cm
scale bar 16.2 mm

Acadian redfish

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Alewife
Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson)
fish length 25 cm
scale bar 7.4 mm

Alewife

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Alligatorfish
Aspidophoroides monopterygius
(Bloch)
fish length 25.4 cm
scale bar 3.2 mm

Alligatorfish

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American plaice
Hippoglossoides platessoides
(Fabricius)
fish length 50 cm
scale bar 9.5 mm

American plaice

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American sand lance
Ammodytes americanus DeKay
fish length 23.0 cm
scale bar 3.5 mm

American sand lance

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American shad
Alosa sapidissima (Wilson)
fish length 42 cm
scale bar 4.0 mm

American Shad

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Atlantic argentine
Argentina silus (Ascanius)
fish length 37 cm
scale bar 10.0 mm

Atlantic argentine

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Atlantic cod
Gadus morhua Linnaeus
fish length 74.0 cm
scale bar 19.6 mm

Atlantic cod

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Atlantic halibut
Hippoglossus hippoglossus
(Linnaeus)
fish length 108 cm
scale bar 12.5 mm

Atlantic halibut

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Atlantic herring
Clupea harengus
Linnaeus
fish length 28 cm
scale bar 4.4 mm

Atlantic herring

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Atlantic mackerel
Scomber scombrus Linnaeus
fish length 36.7 cm
scale bar 5.2 mm

Atlantic mackerel

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Atlantic wolffish
Anarhichas lupus Linnaeus
fish length 76.0 cm
scale bar 4.7 mm

Atlantic wolffish

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Bigeye sculpin
Triglops nybelini Jensen
fish length 21 cm
scale bar 3.9 mm

Bigeye sculpin

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Blackbelly rosefish
Helicolenus dactylopterus
(Delaroche)
fish length 36 cm
scale bar 14.7 mm

Blackbelly rosefish

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Black sea bass
Centropristis striata (Linnaeus)
fish length 33.6 cm
scale bar 11.0 mm

Black sea bass

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Blueback herring
Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill)
fish length 12 cm
scale bar 3.6 mm

Blueback herring

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Bluefish
Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus)
fish length 61 cm
scale bar 14.0 mm

Bluefish

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Butterfish
Peprilus triacanthus (Peck)
fish length 20 cm
scale bar 7.2 mm

Butterfish

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Cunner
Tautogolabrus adspersus
(Walbaum)
fish length 14 cm
scale bar 2.5 mm

Cunner

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Cusk
Brosme brosme (Ascanius)
fish length 77 cm
scale bar 16.0 mm

Cusk

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Fourbeard rockling
Enchelyopus cimbrius (Linnaeus)
fish length 26 cm
scale bar 4.8 mm

Fourbeard rockling

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Fourspot flounder
Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill)
fish length 39.5 cm
scale bar 8.0 mm

Fourspot flounder

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Goosefish
Lophius americanus Valenciennes
fish length 61.8 cm
scale bar 8.5 mm

Goosefish

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Grubby
Myoxocephalus aenaeus
(Mitchill)
fish length 12 cm
scale bar 3.3 mm

Grubby

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Gulf Stream flounder
Citharichthys arctifrons Goode
fish length 19 cm
scale bar 3.0 mm

Gulf Stream flounder

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Haddock
Melanogrammus aeglefinus
(Linnaeus)
fish length 69 cm
scale bar 21.5 mm

Haddock

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Longfin hake
Urophycis chesteri
(Goode & Bean)
fish length 20 cm
scale bar 8.1 mm

Longfin hake

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Longhorn sculpin
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus
(Mitchill)
fish length 22 cm
scale bar 8.6 mm

Longhorn sculpin

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Marlin-spike
Nezumia bairdii (Goode & Bean)
fish length 31 cm
scale bar 19.0 mm

Marlin-spike

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Northern searobin
Prionotus carolinus (Linnaeus)
fish length 31.6 cm
scale bar 8.6 mm

Northern searobin

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Ocean pout
Zoarces americanus
(Bloch & Schneider)
fish length 82 cm
scale bar 4.7 mm

Ocean pout

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Offshore hake
Merluccius albidus (Mitchill)
fish length 52 cm
scale bar 24.0 mm

Offshore hake

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Oyster toadfish
Opsanus tau (Linnaeus)
fish length 24 cm
scale bar 7.0 mm

Oyster toadfish

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Pollock
Pollachius virens (Linnaeus)
fish length 66 cm
scale bar 17.0 mm

Pollock

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Red hake
Urophycis chuss (Walbaum)
fish length 58 cm
scale bar 22.3 mm

Red hake

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Scup
Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus)
fish length 26 cm
scale bar 10.0 mm

Scup

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Sea raven
Hemitripterus americanus (Gmelin)
fish length 35.4 cm
scale bar 4.6 mm

Sea raven

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Silver hake
Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill)
fish length 45 cm
scale bar 21.6 mm

Silver hake

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Spotted hake
Urophycis regia (Walbaum)
fish length 36 cm
scale bar 13.2 mm

Spotted hake

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Striped bass
Morone saxatilis (Walbaum)
fish length 25.8 cm
scale bar 16.0 mm

Striped bass

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Striped searobin
Prionotus evolans (Linnaeus)
fish length 32.7 cm
scale bar 9.0 mm

Striped searobin

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Summer flounder
Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus)
fish length 59 cm
scale bar 9.0 mm

Summer flounder

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Tautog
Tautoga onitis (Linnaeus)
fish length 18 cm
scale bar 3.3 mm

Tautog

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Tilefish
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps
Goode & Bean
fish length 57 cm
scale bar 18.8 mm

Tilefish

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Weakfish
Cynoscion regalis
(Bloch & Schneider)
fish length 76 cm
scale bar 32.0 mm

Weakfish

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White hake
Urophycis tenuis (Mitchill)
fish length 77 cm
scale bar 26.8 mm

White hake

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Windowpane
Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill)
fish length 30 cm
scale bar 4.7 mm

Windowpane

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Winter flounder
Pseudopleuronectes americanus
(Walbaum)
fish length 51 cm
scale bar 7.3 mm

Winter flounder

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Witch flounder
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus
(Linnaeus)
fish length 57 cm
scale bar 8.0 mm

Witch flounder

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Wrymouth
Cryptacanthodes maculatus Storer
fish length 80.3 cm
scale bar 10.2 mm

Wrymouth

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Yellowtail flounder
Limanda ferruginea (Storer)
fish length 37 cm
scale bar 7.2 mm

Yellowtail flounder

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